Current as of December 10, 2023
Dry eye syndrome, also known as keratoconjunctivitis sicca or KCS, is a disorder of the tear film leading to damage to the ocular surface and ocular discomfort. In aqueous tear deficient dry eye, there is inadequate tear production. Patients with dry eye include those who have KCS and those with a more severe form of KCS associated with Sjogren's Syndrome (SS). In SS, lymphocytic infiltration of the lacrimal gland leads to destruction of acinar structures and impaired glandular function. Although most cases of KCS are not due to Sjogren's Syndrome, lymphocytic infiltration of the lacrimal g...
- Diagnosis of CS with documented symptoms and signs (as required below) despite conventional management which may include artificial tears, gels and ointments, sympathomimetic agents and parasympathomimetic agents:
- Schirmer (without anesthesia) less than or equal to 8 mm/5 min in at least one eye; HOWEVER, if Schirmer (without anesthesia) is zero (0) mm, Schirmer with nasal stimulation greater than or equal to 3 mm/ 5 min in the same eye, OR;
- Schirmer (with anesthesia) less than or equal to 10 mm/ 5 min in at least one eye and sum of interpalpebral staining greater than or equal to 3+ or corneal staining greater than or equal to 1+ in the same eye.
- Able and willing to provide informed consent.
- Willingness and ability to meet followup requirements.
- Female patients of childbearing potential must use reliable forms of contraception during the study.
- A negative pregnancy test result in women of childbearing potential.
- Normal lid position and closure.
- The following topical (creams, ointments or patches) or systemic medications are allowed as long as the patient has been on a stable dose for at least 90 days before the baseline visit: Estrogen-progesterone, or other estrogen derivatives.
- If using concomitant medications, and the patient's condition is stable, the patient must agree to remain on a stable dose of his or her concomitant medications throughout the study period, or if the patient's condition is not stable, then they must agree not to use concomitant medications.
- Review of the instructions for use of concomitant medications during the study, prior to the eye examination, and agreement from the patient that they will comply with the instructions. A copy of the instructions must be given to the patient prior to enrollment.
- Patient must not have uncontrolled systemic disease (e.g., hypertension, diabetes) or the presence of any significant illness (e.g., serious gastrointestinal, renal, hepatic, endocrine, pulmonary, cardiac, neurologic disease, cancer, AIDS, or cerebral dysfunction) that could, in the judgment of the investigator, interfere with interpretation of the study results.
- Patients must not have used ophthalmic topical or systemic cyclosporine in the past 90 days.
- Patients must not have Schirmer readings less than 3 mm/5 min, without anesthesia, in both eyes after stimulation thereby indicating end stage lacrimal gland disease.
- Patient must not have active ocular infection or non-KCS ocular inflammation.
- Patient must not have a history of recurrent herpes keratitis or active disease within the last six months.
- Patient must not have corneal disorder or abnormality that effects corneal sensitivity or normal spreading of the tear film (except SPK).
- Patient must not have severe blepharitis or obvious inflammation of the lid margin which in the judgment of the investigator may interfere with the interpretation of the study results.
- No plug placement (laser, cautery, silicone, or collagen implant) within one month prior to the screening visit.
- No punctal occlusion performed during the study.
- Patient must not have a history of anterior segment surgery or trauma which could affect corneal sensitivity (e.g., cataract surgery or any surgery involving a limbal or corneal incision within the last 12 months).
- Patient must not have KCS secondary to the destruction of conjunctival goblet cells as occurs with vitamin A deficiency or scarring such as that with cicatricial pemphigoid, alkali burns, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, trachoma, or irradiation.
- Patients must not use Saligan or antihistamines more than 3 times a week.
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID, /ˈnaɪ.æd/) is one of the 27 institutes and centers that make up the National Institutes of Health (NIH), an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). NIAID's mission is to conduct basic and applied research to better understand, treat, and prevent infectious, immunologic, and allergic diseases.
Immunology at National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Bethesda, Maryland, United States
All reviews come from applied patients